## Archive for the ‘NAG Library’ Category

The latest version of NAG’s toolbox for MATAB has been released for Linux users (Windows versions will follow at a later date) and is available for download over at NAG’s website.

This release syncs the MATLAB toolbox up with Mark 22 of the NAG Fortran library and there is a lot of interesting new functionality including:

- Global Optimisation
- Wavelets
- ProMax rotations
- Improved Sobol quasi random number generator (good for up to 50000 dimensions)
- Option Pricing Formulae
- Lambert’s W function
- A fast quantile routine
- Matrix exponentials

I really like the NAG toolbox for MATLAB for the following reasons (among others):

- It has saved my employer, The University of Manchester, a lot of money since we don’t need as many licenses for toolboxes such as Statistics, Optimisation, Curve Fitting and Splines.
- It can speed up MATLAB calculations – see my article on MATLAB’s interp1 function for example
- It has some functionality that can’t be found in MATLAB.
- Their support team is superb.

Although written for the previous version of the NAG Toolbox for MATLAB, the following articles will be useful for anyone who wants to get started with the toolbox.

- Calling the NAG routines from MATLAB
- Using the NAG Toolbox for MATLAB part 1
- Using the NAG Toolbox for MATLAB part 2
- Using the NAG Toolbox for MATLAB part 3

Previous articles written by me about the NAG toolbox for MATLAB include

- NAG – The ultimate toolbox for MATLAB (a write up of Mark 21 of the toolbox)
- A faster version of MATLAB’s interp1 (How I helped a user drastically speed up her code by swapping MATLAB’s interp 1 function with a couple from the NAG toolbox – real world code runtime reduced from 1hour 10mins per run down to 26mins per run)

The Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) produce some of the best mathematical libraries money can buy (and no…I don’t work for them – I’m just a very happy customer). Although they are written in C and Fortran it is possible to use them in almost any programming environment you care to mention – I’ve personally used them with both Python and Visual Basic for example as well as making extensive use of their toolbox for MATLAB.

More recently, Anna Kwiczala of NAG has written an article demonstrating how to use them in the free, open source MATLAB-like package, Octave. Head over there to check it out.

Let me know if you are a user of the NAG library as I’d quite like to swap notes.

I often get sent a piece of code written in something like MATLAB or Mathematica and get asked ‘**how can I make this faster?**‘. I have no doubt that some of you are thinking that the correct answer is something like ‘**completely rewrite it in Fortran or C**‘ and if you are then I can only assume that you have never been face to face with a harassed, sleep-deprived researcher who has been sleeping in the lab for 7 days straight in order to get some results prepared for an upcoming conference.

Telling such a person that they should throw their painstakingly put-together piece of code away and learn a considerably more difficult language in order to rewrite the whole thing is unhelpful at best and likely to result in the loss of an eye at worst. I have found that a MUCH better course of action is to profile the code, find out where the slow bit is and then do what you can with that. Often you can get very big speedups in return for only a modest amount of work and as a bonus you get to keep the use of both of your eyes.

Recently I had an email from someone who had profiled her MATLAB code and had found that it was spending a lot of time in the **interp1 **function. Would it be possible to use the NAG toolbox for MATLAB (which hooks into NAG’s superfast Fortran library) to get her results faster she wondered? Between the two of us and the NAG technical support team we eventually discovered that the answer was a very definite **yes.**

Rather than use her actual code, which is rather complicated and domain-specific, let’s take a look at a highly simplified version of her problem. Let’s say that you have the following data-set

x = [0;0.2;0.4;0.6;0.75;0.9;1]; y = [1;1.22140275816017;1.49182469764127;1.822118800390509;2.117000016612675;2.45960311115695; 2.718281828459045];

and you want to interpolate this data on a fine grid between x=0 and x=1 using piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation. One way of doing this in MATLAB is to use the **interp1** function as follows

tic t=0:0.00005:1; y1 = interp1(x,y,t,'pchip'); toc

The tic and toc statements are there simply to provide timing information and on my system the above code took 0.503 seconds. We can do exactly the same calculation using the NAG toolbox for MATLAB:

tic [d,ifail] = e01be(x,y); [y2, ifail] = e01bf(x,y,d,t); toc

which took 0.054958 seconds on my system making it around **9 times faster** than the pure MATLAB solution – not bad at all for such a tiny amount of work. Of course y1 and y2 are identical as the following call to norm demonstrates

norm(y1-y2) ans = 0

Of course the real code contained a lot more than just a call to interp1 but using the above technique decreased the run time of the user’s application from 1 hour 10 minutes down to only 26 minutes.

Thanks to the NAG technical support team for their assistance with this particular problem and to the postgraduate student who came up with the idea in the first place.

**Update (5th November 2009): **PyNAG has been updated several times since this post was written. The latest version will always be available from https://www.walkingrandomly.com/?page_id=1662

This is part 6 of a series of articles devoted to demonstrating how to call the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) C library from Python. Click here for the index to this series.

Over the last few articles I have demonstrated that it is relatively straightforward to interface Python to the NAG C library. The resulting code, however, looks a bit ugly and overly verbose since you have to include a lot of boiler plate code such as telling Python where the C library is, defining pythonic versions of C structures, defining various constants and so on. I found myself doing a lot of copying and pasting in the early stages of working all this stuff out.

Just recently I made a small step forward by moving all of this boilerplate into a Python package which I have called PyNAG. It’s a relatively simple package since all it does is define Pythonic versions of various C-structures, link to the NAG library, perform restypes on the function names, define a few often used NAG variables such as NAGERR_DEFAULT and so on.

The practical upshot is that you need to write a lot less code when interfacing with the C library. For example here is the Python code to minimise a 2D function via the simplex method using e04ccc of the NAG library.

#!/usr/bin/env python #Mike Croucher - April 2008 #A minimisation problem solved using e04ccc from PyNAG import e04ccc,NAGERR_DEFAULT,E04_DEFAULT,Nag_Comm from ctypes import * from math import * #Create the communication structure comm = Nag_Comm() #set up the objective function def py_obj_func(n,xc,objf,comm): objf[0] = exp(xc[0]) * (xc[0] * 4.0 * ( xc[0]+xc[1] ) + xc[1] * 2.0 * (xc[1] +1.0) +1.0 ) C_FUNC = CFUNCTYPE(None,c_int,POINTER(c_double),POINTER(c_double),POINTER(Nag_Comm) ) c_obj_func = C_FUNC(py_obj_func) #Set up the starting point n=2 x=(c_double*2)() x[0]=c_double(0.4) x[1]=c_double(-0.8) #Set up other variables objf = c_double() e04ccc(n, c_obj_func, byref(x), byref(objf),E04_DEFAULT,comm,NAGERR_DEFAULT)

It’s still not as pretty as it would it if it were written in pure python but it’s a (small) step in the right direction I think.

### The good

- PyNAG is free and always will be. You’ll obviously need to buy a copy of the NAG C library though.
- It includes a definition of one of the largest C-Structures I have ever seen –
**Nag_E04_Opt**– which has over 130 members. This took me quite a while to get working and now you don’t need to go through the same pain I did. All the C structures mentioned in these tutorials have been included to save your typing fingers. - PyNAG has been tested on 32bit and 64bit flavours of Linux and seems to work fine.
- It is relatively easy to add definitions for NAG functions that are not already currently included. In the best case scenario all you need to do is add two lines of code per NAG function. (They’re not all this easy though!)
- It comes with a set of fully functional examples (15 so far with more on the way) along with expected output. This output has been checked against the original C versions of the code to ensure that the results are correct

### The bad

- It only works on Linux at the moment. Depending on interest levels (mine and yours) I may get it working on Mac OS X and Windows.
- It only includes all the boilerplate needed to interface with 22 NAG functions at the time of writing. This is a very small percentage of the library as a whole.
- It doesn’t include
**all**of the structures you might need to use throughout the entire library at the moment. - It doesn’t include any of the enumerations that the NAG C library uses. I plan to include some of the most commonly used ones but will simply have to define them as variables since ctypes doesn’t support enumerations as far as I know.
- This is my first ever Python package so things may be a bit rough around the edges. I welcome advice from more experienced Pythonistas concerning things like package deployment.
- The Python version of the NagError structure has a member called
**pprint**rather than the original**print.**This is because print is a reserved keyword in Python so I couldn’t use it. - It has only been tested on Python versions 2.5.x and 2.6.x. I have no idea if it will work on other versions at the moment.
- Documentation is rather sparse at the moment. I haven’t had time to do a better job.

### TheUgly

- All PyNAG really does is save you from having to type in a load of boilerplate. It doesn’t properly ‘pythonise’ the NAG C library and so it is painfully obvious that your code is talking to a C library and not a Python library. Ideally I would like to change this and make the user interface a lot more user-friendly. Any input on how best to go about this would be gratefully received.

### The Installation

The first public release of PyNAG is version 0.12 and is currently available here (Linux only). Installation instructions are

- Download the tar gzip file above and run the following commands
- tar -xvzf ./PyNAG-0.12.tar.gz

cd PyNAG-0.12/src - edit the following line in the file
**__init__.py**so that it points to your installation of the library

**C_libnag= ctypes.cdll.LoadLibrary(“/opt/NAG/cllux08dgl/lib/libnagc_nag.so.8”)** - Move back into the root PyNAG-0.12 directory:

cd.. - run the following command with administrator priviledges

python setup.py install

The installer will scatter the PyNAG files where ever your machine is set up to put them. On my machine it was put in the following location but your mileage may vary

**/usr/local/lib/python2.6/dist-packages/PyNAG**

### The Examples

I have written a set of example scripts that show PyNAG in use and these can be found in the** src/examples** directory of the PyNAG distribution. Mathematically speaking they are all rather dull but they do show how you can call the routines I have included so far. More interesting examples will be appearing soon.

### The Future

Getting the NAG C library to work with Python has always been a side project for me and I never expected to take it even this far. Most of this work has been done on the train while commuting to and from work and, although it is far from perfect, I am happy with it so far. There is much to do though and the rate it gets done depends on user-interest. Things that spring to mind (in no particular order) are

- Get PyNAG on a proper CVS system such as github so that other people can easily contribute.
- Add support for Numpy matrices.
- Add support for more of the most commonly used NAG functions.
- Get a windows version up and running.
- Write some more interesting demos.
- Write some sort of automated test script that runs all the examples and compares the results with a set of expected results.
- See if I get any users and take requests :)

### Final points.

**I do not work for NAG – I just like their products. **My professional involvement with them is via the University of Manchester where I am the site-license administrator for NAG products (among many other things). I have a vested interest in getting the best out of their products as well as getting the best out of the likes of Wolfram, Mathworks and a shed-load of other software vendors.

One of my hobbies is pointing out to NAG where their library could do with extra functionality. I am aided in this venture by a load of academics who use the library in it’s various guises and who contact me to say ‘I like NAG but it would be much better if it had the ability to do XYZ’. I am very grateful to NAG for accepting my steady stream of emails with good grace and also for implementing some of our suggestions in the latest version of their library. Feel free to point out any of **your** favourite algorithms that are missing from the library and why it should have them.

Finally, I’d like to thank the various people at NAG who helped me get my head around their library and for helping me test my initial tentative steps into the NAG/Python world. I owe many of you several beverages of your choice.

As always, comments are welcomed.

**Update (5th November 2009): **PyNAG has been updated several times since this post was written. The latest version will always be available from https://www.walkingrandomly.com/?page_id=1662

This is part 5 of a series of articles devoted to demonstrating how to call the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) C library from Python. Click here for the index to this series.

The Optimisation chapter of the NAG C library is one of the most popular chapters in my experience. It is also one of the most complicated from a programming point of view but if you have been working through this series from the beginning then you already know all of the Python techniques you need. From this point on it’s just a matter of increased complexity.

As always, however, I like to build the complexity up slowly so let’s take a look at possibly the simplest NAG optimisation routine – e04abc. This routine minimizes a function of one variable, using function values only. In other words – you don’t need to provide it with derivative information which simplifies the programming at the cost of performance.

The example Python code I am going to give will solve a very simple local optimisation problem – The minimisation of the function sin(x)/x in the range [3.5,5.0] or, put another way, what are the x and y values of the centre of the red dot in the picture below.

The NAG/Python code to do this is given below (or you can download it here).

#!/usr/bin/env python #Example 4 using NAG C library and ctypes - e04abc #Mike Croucher - April 2008 #Concepts : Communication callback functions that use the C prototype void funct(double, double *,Nag_comm *)

from ctypes import * from math import * libnag = cdll.LoadLibrary("/opt/NAG/cllux08dgl/lib/libnagc_nag.so.8") e04abc = libnag.e04abc e04abc.restype=None

class Nag_Comm(Structure): _fields_ = [("flag", c_int), ("first", c_int), ("last", c_int), ("nf",c_int), ("it_prt",c_int), ("it_maj_prt",c_int), ("sol_sqp_prt",c_int), ("sol_prt",c_int), ("rootnode_sol_prt",c_int), ("node_prt",c_int), ("rootnode_prt",c_int), ("g_prt",c_int), ("new_lm",c_int), ("needf",c_int), ("p",c_void_p), ("iuser",POINTER(c_int) ), ("user",POINTER(c_double) ), ("nag_w",POINTER(c_double) ), ("nag_iw",POINTER(c_int) ), ("nag_p",c_void_p), ("nag_print_w",POINTER(c_double) ), ("nag_print_iw",POINTER(c_int) ), ("nrealloc",c_int) ]

#define python objective function def py_obj_func(x,ans,comm): ans[0] = sin(x) / x return

#create the type for the c callback function C_FUNC = CFUNCTYPE(None,c_double,POINTER(c_double),POINTER(Nag_Comm))

#now create the c callback function c_func = C_FUNC(py_obj_func)

#Set up the problem parameters comm = Nag_Comm() #e1 and e2 control the solution accuracy. Setting them to 0 chooses the default values. #See the documentation for e04abc for more details e1 = c_double(0.0) e2 = c_double(0.0) #a and b define our starting interval a = c_double(3.5) b = c_double(5.0) #xt will contain the x value of the minimum xt=c_double(0.0) #f will contain the function value at the minimum f=c_double(0.0) #max_fun is the maximum number of function evaluations we will allow max_fun=c_int(100) #Yet again I cheat for fail parameter. fail=c_long(0)

e04abc(c_func,e1,e2,byref(a),byref(b),max_fun,byref(xt),byref(f),byref(comm),fail)

print "The minimum is in the interval [%s,%s]" %(a.value,b.value) print "The estimated result = %s" % xt.value print "The function value at the minimum is %s " % f.value print "%s evaluations were required" % comm.nf

If you run this code then you should get the following output

The minimum is in the interval [4.4934093959,4.49340951173] The estimated result = 4.49340945381 The function value at the minimum is -0.217233628211 10 evaluations were required

**IFAIL oddness**

My original version of this code used the trick of setting the NAG IFAIL parameter to** c_int(0)** to save me from worrying about the NagError structure (this is first explained in part 1) but when this example was tested it didn’t work on 64bit machines although it worked just fine on 32bit machines. Changing it to **c_long(0)** (as I have done in this example) made it work on both 32 and 64bit machines.

What I find odd is that in all my previous examples, c_int(0) worked just fine on both architectures. Eventually I will cover how to use the IFAIL parameter ‘properly’ but for now it is sufficient to be aware of this issue.

**Scary Structures**

Although this is the longest piece of code we have seen so far in this series, it contains no new Python/ctypes techniques at all. The only major difficulty I faced when writing it for the first time was making sure that I got the specification of the** Nag_Comm** structure correct by carefully working though the C specification of it in the **nag_types.h** file (included with the NAG C library installation) and transposing it to Python.

One of the biggest hurdles you will face when working with the NAG C library and Python is getting these structure definitions correct and some of them are truly **HUGE**. If you can get away with it then you are advised to copy and paste someone else’s definitions rather than create your own from scratch. In a later part of this series I will be releasing a Python module called PyNAG which will predefine some of the more common structures for you.

**Callback functions with Communication**

The objective function (that is, the function we want to minimise) is implemented as a callback function but it is a bit more complicated than the one we saw in part 3. This NAG routine expects the C prototype of your objective function to look like this:

**void funct(double xc, double *fc, Nag_Comm *comm)**

- xc is an input argument and is the point at which the value of f(x) is required.
- fc is an output argument and is the value of the function f at the current point x. Note that it is a pointer to double.
- Is a pointer to a structure of type Nag_Comm. Your function may or may not use this directly but the NAG routine almost certainly will. It is through this structure that the NAG routine can
**communicate**various things to and from your function as and when is necessary.

so our C-types function prototype looks like this

C_FUNC = CFUNCTYPE(None,c_double,POINTER(c_double),POINTER(Nag_Comm))

whereas the python function itself is

#define python objective function def py_obj_func(x,ans,comm): ans[0] = sin(x) / x return

Note that we need to do

ans[0] = sin(x) / x

rather than simply

ans = sin(x) / x

since **ans** is a **pointer to double** rather than just a **double**.

In this particular example I have only used the simplest feature provided by the Nag_Comm structure and that is to ask it how many times the objective function was called.

print "%s evaluations were required" % comm.nf

That’s it for this part of the series. Next time I’ll be looking at a more advanced optimisation routine. Feel free to post any comments, questions or suggestions.

This is part 4 of a series of articles devoted to demonstrating how to call the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) C library from Python. Click here for the index to this series.

The NAG C library makes extensive use of C structures throughout its code base and so we will need to know how to represent them in Python. For example, the NAG routine d01ajc is a general purpose one dimensional numerical integrator and one of it’s arguments is a structure called Nag_QuadProgress with the following prototype (found in the **nag_types.h** file that comes with the NAG C library)

typedef struct { Integer num_subint; Integer fun_count; double *sub_int_beg_pts; double *sub_int_end_pts; double *sub_int_result; double *sub_int_error; } Nag_QuadProgress;

following the ctypes documentation on Structures and Unions, I came up with the following Python representation of this structure and it seems to work just fine.

** **

class Nag_QuadProgress(Structure): _fields_ = [("num_subint", c_int), ("funcount", c_int), ("sub_int_beg_pts",POINTER(c_double) ), ("sub_int_end_pts",POINTER(c_double)), ("sub_int_result",POINTER(c_double) ), ("sub_int_error",POINTER(c_double) ) ]

This is the only extra information we need in order to write a Python program that calculates the numerical approximation to an integral using the NAG routine d01ajc. Let’s calculate the integral of the function 4/(1.0+x*x) over the interval [0,1]. The code is as follows:

#!/usr/bin/env python #Example 3 using NAG C library and ctypes #d01ajc - one dimensional quadrature #Mike Croucher - April 2008 #Concept introduced : Creating and using Python versions of structures such as Nag_QuadProgress from ctypes import * libnag = cdll.LoadLibrary("/opt/NAG/cllux08dgl/lib/libnagc_nag.so.8") d01ajc = libnag.d01ajc d01ajc.restype=None class Nag_QuadProgress(Structure): _fields_ = [("num_subint", c_int), ("funcount", c_int), ("sub_int_beg_pts",POINTER(c_double) ), ("sub_int_end_pts",POINTER(c_double)), ("sub_int_result",POINTER(c_double) ), ("sub_int_error",POINTER(c_double) ) ] #define python function def py_func(x): return 4./(1.0+x*x) #create the prototype for the c callback function C_FUNC = CFUNCTYPE(c_double,c_double ) #now create the c callback function c_func = C_FUNC(py_func) #set up the problem a = c_double(0.0) b = c_double(1.0) nlimit = c_int(100) epsr = c_double(0.00001) ifail = c_int(0) max_num_subint=c_int(200) nlimit = c_int(0) result=c_double(0.0) epsabs= c_double(0.0) epsrel=c_double(0.0001); abserr=c_double(0.0); qp=Nag_QuadProgress() d01ajc(c_func,a,b,epsabs,epsrel,max_num_subint,byref(result) ,byref(abserr),byref(qp),ifail ) print "Approximation of integral= %s" %(result.value) print "Number of function evaluations=%s" % qp.funcount print "Number of subintervals used= %s" % qp.num_subint

Copy and paste (or download) this to a file called d01ajc.py, make it executable and run it by typing the following at a bash prompt.

chmod +x ./d01ajc.py

./d01ajc.py

If all has gone well then you should get following result

Approximation of integral= 3.14159265359 Number of function evaluations=21 Number of subintervals used= 1

Note that in order to create an instance of the Nag_QuadProgress structure I just do

**qp=Nag_QuadProgress()**

It is also useful to compare the C prototype of d01ajc

**void nag_1d_quad_gen (double (*f)(double x),
double a, double b, double epsabs, double epsrel,
Integer max_num_subint, double *result, double *abserr,
Nag_QuadProgress *qp, NagError *fail)**

with the way I called it in Python

d01ajc(c_func,a,b,epsabs,epsrel,max_num_subint,byref(result) ,byref(abserr),byref(qp),ifail )

Note how pointer arguments such as

**double *abserr**

are called as follows

**byref(abserr)**

Yet again I have cheated with the NagError parameter and just used **c_int(0)** instead of a proper NagError structure. NagError will be treated properly in a future article.

This is part 3 of a series of articles on how to use the NAG C Library with Python using the ctypes module. Click here for the introduction and index to the series.

Now that we have seen how to call the simplest of NAG functions from Python, it is time to move on and consider callback functions. If you don’t know what a callback function is then I think that the current version of the relevant Wikipedia article explains it well:

*A callback is executable code that is passed as an argument to other code.*

For example, say you want to want to find the zero of the function **exp(-x)/x** using a routine from the NAG library. Your first step would be to create a function that evaluates exp(-x)/x for any given x. You’ll later pass this function to the NAG routine to allow the routine to evaluate exp(-x)/x wherever it needs to.

Let’s take a look at some Python code that performs the calculation described above. The NAG routine I am using locates a zero of a continuous function in a given interval by a combination of the methods of linear interpolation, extrapolation and bisection and is called c05adc.

#!/usr/bin/env python

#Example 2 using NAG C libray and ctypes

#Mike Croucher - April 2008

#Concept Introduced : Callback functions

from ctypes import *

from math import *

libnag = cdll.LoadLibrary("/opt/NAG/cllux08dgl/lib/libnagc_nag.so.8")

c05adc = libnag.c05adc

c05adc.restype=None

` `

#define python function def py_func(x): return exp(-x)-x

#create the type for the c callback function

C_FUNC = CFUNCTYPE(c_double,c_double )

#now create the c callback function

c_func = C_FUNC(py_func)

a=c_double(0.0)

b=c_double(1.0)

xtol=c_double(0.00001)

ftol=c_double(0.0)

x=c_double(0.0)

fail=c_int(0)

c05adc(a, b, byref(x), c_func, xtol, ftol, fail );

print "result = %s" % (x.value)

Copy and paste (or download) this to a file called c05adc.py, make it executable and run it by typing the following at a bash prompt.

chmod +x ./c05adc.py

./c05adc.py

If all has gone well then you should get following output

result = 0.567143306605

Most of the code above will be familiar to anyone who worked through part 1 of this series. The first unfamiliar part might be

` `

#define python function def py_func(x): return exp(-x)-x

Which is nothing more than a standard Python function for calculating exp(-x)-x.

C_FUNC = CFUNCTYPE(c_double,c_double )

Here I have created a new C function prototype called C_FUNC by using the CFUNCTYPE function from the ctypes module. The general syntax of CFUNCTYPE is

*CFUNCTYPE(return_type,input_arg1,input_arg2,input_arg3) *

where the list of input arguments can be as long as you like. The C function I want to create from my Python function should return a c_double and have a single c_double input argument so I end up with` CFUNCTYPE(c_double,c_double )`

**
c_func = C_FUNC(py_func)
**Here I have used the function prototype created earlier to generate a C function called

**c_func**based on my Python function

**py_func**.

c05adc(a, b, byref(x), c_func, xtol, ftol, fail );

Finally, I call the NAG routine c05adc using all of the arguments set up earlier. Note that I can pass my C function, **c_func**, to the NAG routine just as easily as I would any other argument. For reference, here is the original C prototype of the NAG routine along with a list of its arguments and what they mean

void nag_zero_cont_func_bd(double a, double b, double *x,

double (*f)(double x), double xtol,

double ftol, NagError *fail)

- a – (Input) The lower bound of the interval [a,b] in which the search for a zero will take place.
- b – (Input) The upper bound of the interval
- x – (Output) The approximation to the zero. Note that the C prototype uses a pointer to double and I have emulated this in python using the
**byref()**function to pass x by reference. - f – (Input) A pointer to the function who’s zeros we want to find. The C prototype might look complicated but, as you have seen, the implementation in Python is quite straightforward.
- xtol – (Input) The absolute tolerance to which the zero is required.
- ftol – (Input) a value such that if |f (x)| < ftol, x is accepted as the zero. ftol may be specified as0.0
- fail – The NAG error parameter. We haven’t covered structures yet so we can’t use NAGError properly but I have used the trick that the NAG routines will accept c_int(0) in order to accept the default error handling behaviour.

That’s it for now. Next time I will be looking at numerical integration using the NAG library which will require the introduction of structures.

As always, comments, queries and corrections are gratefully received.

This is part 2 of a series of articles devoted to demonstrating how to call the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) C library from Python. Click here for the index to this series.

In part 1 I explained how to calculate the Cosine Integral, Ci(x), using Python and the NAG C library but the example code was a little dull in that it only calculated Ci(0.2). Before moving onto more advanced topics I thought it would be fun to use the python module, matplotlib, to generate a plot of the cosine integral.

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#!/usr/bin/env python from ctypes import * import matplotlib.pyplot as plt libnag = cdll.LoadLibrary("/opt/NAG/cllux08dgl/lib/libnagc_nag.so.8") s13acc = libnag.s13acc s13acc.restype=c_double fail=c_int(0) def nag_cos_integral(x): x=c_double(x) result= s13acc(x,fail) return result xvals = [x*0.1 for x in range(1,200)] yvals = map(nag_cos_integral,xvals) plt.plot(xvals,yvals) plt.show()

Click here to download this program – you’ll need a copy of the NAG C library to make it work. The output is shown below.

This is part 1 of a series of articles devoted to demonstrating how to call the Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) C library from Python. Click here for the index to this series.

Our first NAG/Python example is going to use the NAG function s13acc which calculates the Cosine integral Ci(x) defined as

According to the NAG documentation, the algorithm used is based on several Chebyshev expansions. So, let’s see what we need to do to access this function from Python.

Assuming that you have installed the cllux08dgl implementation of the NAG C library, you should find that the following Python code evaluates Ci(x) for x=0.2.

#!/usr/bin/env python

from ctypes import *

`libnag = cdll.LoadLibrary("/opt/NAG/cllux08dgl/lib/libnagc_nag.so.8")`

nag_cos_integral = libnag.s13acc

nag_cos_integral.restype=c_double

`x = c_double(0.2)`

ifail=c_int(0)

`y= nag_cos_integral( x, ifail )`

print "x= %s, cos_integral= %s" % (x.value,y)

Save (or download) this to a file called s13acc.py, make it executable and run it by typing the following at a bash prompt.

chmod +x ./s13acc.py

./s13acc.py

If all has gone well then you should get following result

x= 0.2, cos_integral= -1.04220559567

Since this our first piece of NAG/Python code let’s go through it line by line.

from ctypes import *

This simply imports everything from the standard ctypes module and makes it available in the global namespace.

libnag = cdll.LoadLibrary("/opt/NAG/cllux08dgl/lib/libnagc_nag.so.8")

nag_cos_integral = libnag.s13acc

The first line loads the NAG library using the cldll.LoadLibrary() function and associates it with an object I have named libnag whereas the second line pulls the function s13acc out of libnag and associates it with an object having the more user-friendly name of nag_cos_integral.

This is the least portable part of the code. If you are using a different implementation of the NAG C library then you will need to change the path in the LoadLibrary function.

nag_cos_integral.restype=c_double

The ctypes module provides us with a set of C compatible data-types such as c_int, c_double, c_char and so on, and we have to use these when we interact with C functions. The object nag_cos_integral represents the NAG C function we wish to call and by default ctypes assumes that the return type of all C functions is of type c_int unless we tell it otherwise.

We know from the documentation for s13acc that its return type is double and so here we are using the restype method function to set the return type of nag_cos_integral to c_double.

x = c_double(0.2)

ifail=c_int(0)

Here, we are setting up our input arguments. x is straightforward enough but the observant reader will notice that there is something fishy going on with the ifail parameter. The NAG documentation tells us that the ifail parameter of s13acc should be a pointer to a NagError structure but structures are a complication that I don’t want to deal with here so I have cheated and used the fact that the integer 0 is defined as NAGERR_DEFAULT via an enumeration in the C library header file. In short, this means that I don’t have to use a NagError structure if I don’t want to. Full details can be found in section 2.6 of the Essential Introduction to the NAG C Library.

We’ll look at how to use the NagError structure properly via Python in a later article for those who need it.

y= nag_cos_integral( x, ifail )

Here we pass our input parameters to the nag_cos_integral function and store the result in y. When I was working all of this out for the first time, I expected y to be of type c_double. After all, we earlier used restype to set the return type of nag_cos_integral to c_double so that’s what I expected to get but it turns out that y is a plain old python double. This is clearly explained in the ctypes documentation and I quote the relevant section below

‘Fundamental data types, when returned as foreign function call results, or, for example, by retrieving structure field members or array items, are transparently converted to native Python types. In other words, if a foreign function has a restype of c_char_p, you will always receive a Python string, not a c_char_p instance.’

print "x= %s, cos_integral= %s" % (x.value,y)

Finally, we actually print the output. Since x is a c_double we need to use the value attribute to ensure that 0.2 gets printed rather than c_double(0.2). The variable y is a python double as explained earlier so it needs no special treatment.

That’s it for this article in the series. Next time I’ll give an example using this function along with matplotlib to produce some more interesting output before moving onto callback functions.

As always, questions and comments are welcomed.

The NAG library is possibly the most comprehensive numerical library available today with over 1500 functions and a long and distinguished history going back almost 40 years. Although it is commercial, NAG is a not-for-profit company and has donated large amounts of code to the open source community over the years. The library covers many application areas including special functions, optimization, curve fitting, statistics, numerical differentiation and linear algebra among others with even more coming up in the next release. It has been available in several different programming languages over the years but these days you can get it in essentially four flavours – The NAG Fortran Library, The NAG C Library, the Maple-NAG connector and the NAG Toolbox for MATLAB.

I have been supporting users of the NAG library at Manchester University for a few years now and one of the most common reactions I get from a potential user of the NAG libraries when they see the list of available languages is to say ‘I don’t program in any of those – I program in XYZ – so the NAG library is no use to me.’ where XYZ might be Java, Perl, Visual Basic, Python, R or one of any number of weird and wonderful possibilities.

It turns out that YOUR choice of language almost doesn’t matter as far as NAG is concerned since, with a bit of work, you can call the NAG routines from pretty much any language you care to mention. Put another way, NAG program in Fortran (and C) so you don’t have to. One language that has been mentioned a lot recently is Python.

Mat Cross, an employee of NAG, wrote a guide a little while ago giving detailed instructions on how to call the NAG Fortran library from Python using a module called F2PY and very nice it is too. However, some people are never happy and almost as soon as the article was published I started getting queries about the NAG C library and Python. As far as I could tell this particular combination hadn’t been covered by anyone before so I rolled up my sleeves to see what I could come up with.

After all, how hard could it be?

I have lost count of the number of times I have regretted uttering that particular phrase but in this case, thanks to a wonderful Python module called ctypes, the answer turns out to be ‘Not nearly as hard as you might expect’.

The results of my investigations will be posted on Walking Randomly over the next few weeks and will include several examples of how to use the NAG C library within Python. I’ll start off with the simplest of NAG functions and steadily move towards some of the most complex. On the way we will cover several areas of numerical mathematics including special functions, numerical quadrature, root finding and optimization.

I will initially be concentrating on Ubuntu Linux since that is my favourite development environment but I am aware that users of both NAG and Python make use of many platforms including Windows and Mac OS X. If there is sufficient interest then I will make other platform-specific articles available in the future.

The list below contains links to all of the articles published in the series so far and will be expanded as new ones come online so this post will eventually serve as an index to the whole series. Extra topics may be considered on request.

**Topic List (will be expanded as new articles are available)
**

- Making simple NAG C functions available to Python
- Plotting the Cosine Integral using NAG and matplotlib
- Callback functions (The example code given is for finding the zero’s of an equation)
- Structures (The example code given is for Numerical Integration)
- Callback functions with communication (The example code solves a simple 1d minimization problem)
- PyNAG – A Python package for interfacing with the NAG C Library

**Implementation specifics**

The NAG C library is available for a wide range of platforms and C compilers (representing 26 different combinations when I last counted) but I only wanted to focus on one for the sake of sanity! In particular, I am using **cllux08dgl** throughout this series which is for 32bit Linux and was compiled using the gcc compiler. I am using version 8.10 of Ubuntu Linux.

I imagine that most of what I write will be directly transferable, with minor modifications, to other versions of the NAG C library. After all Python is quite portable but there may be some differences if you are using a platform wildly different from mine. Where I am able, I will help people get the examples working on their platform of choice but reserve the right to refer you to the NAG support team if necessary.

Finally, I have developed all of this series using 2.5.2 and have no idea if it will work in later versions or not.